Cone-beam x-ray luminescence computed tomography (CB-XLCT) prototype development and performance evaluation

Yu Hong Wang, David Shih Chun Jin, Tian Yu Wu, Chieh Shen, Jyh Cheng Chen*, Snow H. Tseng, Tse Ying Liu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study developed a prototype for a rotational cone-beam x-ray luminescence computed tomography (CB-XLCT) system, considering its potential application in pre-clinical theranostic imaging. A geometric calibration method applicable to both imaging chains (XL and CT) was also developed to enhance image quality. The results of systematic performance evaluations were presented to assess the feasibility of commercializing XLCT technology. Monte Carlo GATE simulation was performed to determine the optimal imaging conditions for nanophosphor particles (NPs) irradiated by 70 kV x-rays. We acquired a low-dose transmission x-ray tube and designed a prone positioning platform and a rotating gantry, using mice as targets from commercial small animal μ-CT systems. We then employed the image cross-correlation (ICC) automatic geometric calibration method to calibrate XL and CT images. The performance of the system was evaluated through a series of phantom experiments with a linearity of 0.99, and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between hydroxyl-apatite (HA) and based epoxy resin is 19.5. The XL images of the CB-XLCT prototype achieved a Dice similarity coefficient (DICE) of 0.149 for a distance of 1 mm between the two light sources. Finally, the final XLCT imaging results were demonstrated using the Letter phantoms with NPs. In summary, the CB-XLCT prototype developed in this study showed the potential to achieve high-quality imaging with acceptable radiation doses for small animals. The performance of CT images was comparable to current commercial machines, while the XL images exhibited promising results in phantom imaging, but further efforts are needed for biomedical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number035016
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 7 Feb 2024


  • computed tomography
  • geometric calibration
  • low dose
  • performance evaluation
  • prototype
  • x-ray luminescence computed tomography (XLCT)


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