Three major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) analytical methods, gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode-array detector (HPLC-PDA) and HPLC-fluorescence detector (FLD) were compared to analyze the European Union (EU) priority PAHs. In addition to the highest sensitivity, HPLC-FLD could be developed to rapidly determine the PAHs. A QuEChERS method was also established to rapidly extract the PAHs from chicken drumsticks. The method detection limits (0.004–0.25 ng/g), method quantification limits (0.01–0.75 ng/g), recoveries (67–114%), and coefficients of variations for intra- (1–15%) and inter- (1–21%) assays for the determination of the PAHs were in compliance with the EU and Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) requirements. The PAHs contents in charcoal-grilled chicken drumsticks (without skin, with skin, and skin removal after processing) at different processing times were also determined by the developed methods. Although the risk assessment results for all samples showed a low level of concern, the presence of skin and long-term grilling had a greater impact on PAHs levels and dietary risks. Therefore, excessive processing should be avoided, and the skin of chicken drumsticks should be removed before and after charcoal-grilling to reduce the risk of PAHs intake.
- Charcoal-grilled chicken drumsticks
- Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS)
- High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
- Risk assessment