Comparing the Dual-Mode VCSEL in OM4-MMF and GI-SMF Links for NRZ-OOK and 16-QAM-OFDM Transmissions

Shao Yung Lee, Chih Hsien Cheng, Hsien Yao Tseng, Xin Chen, Wei Chi Lo, Kangmei Li, Chia Hsuan Wang, Cheng Ting Tsai, Hao Chung Kuo, Ming Jun Li, Gong Ru Lin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


A dual-mode (DM) vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is investigated for carrying high-speed data transmission with either the non-return-zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK) or the quadrature amplitude modulation-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (QAM-OFDM) format. In both the back-to-back (BtB) and the 100-m transmission cases with using either the OM4 multimode fiber (OM4-MMF) or the graded-index single-mode fiber (GI-SMF), the mismatch between the core diameter of the lensed MMF pick-up head and the mode field of the DM-VCSEL output controls the coupled transverse mode number and decrease the modal dispersion effect. Using pre-emphasized NRZ-OOK data can compensate the SNR degradation to improve the BER to 5.6 × 10-12 under BtB and 6.9 × 10-10 after 100-m GI-SMF for the DM-VCSEL delivered NRZ-OOK data at 53 Gbit/s. For 16-QAM OFDM transmission, the pre-leveling algorithm shows better data compensation than the pre-emphasis algorithm in both BtB and the 100-m GI-SMF cases. With the pre-leveling compensation of the 16-QAM OFDM data encoded to the DM-VCSEL with a 0.4-dB/GHz slope, the DM-VCSEL allows 136 Gbit/s for BtB, 112 Gbit/s for 100-m OM4-MMF, and 92 Gbit/s for 100-m GI-SMF transmissions. The pre-emphasis NRZ-OOK and the pre-leveling 16-QAM OFDM data carried by the DM-VCSEL can be used in ultrahigh-speed intra-data-center links in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7927713
JournalIEEE Photonics Journal
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2022


  • Dual-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser
  • graded-index single-mode fiber (GI-SMF)


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