Clinical Utility of Leeds Dependence Questionnaire in Medication-Overuse Headache

Yen Feng Wang*, Yi Shiang Tzeng, Chia Chun Yu, Yu Hsiang Ling, Shih-Pin Chen, Kuan Lin Lai, Shuu Jiun Wang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Dependence behaviors are common in patients with medication-overuse headache (MOH). This prospective study aimed to characterize dependence behaviors in MOH by using Leeds dependence questionnaire (LDQ), and to determine the clinical utility of LDQ in the diagnosis of MOH. In total, 563 consecutive chronic migraine (CM) patients (451F/112M, mean age 41.7 ± 12.0 years) were recruited, including 320 with MOH (56.8%) (254F/66M, mean age 42.3 ± 11.6 years). LDQ scores were positively correlated with the monthly frequency of acute medication use (Spearman’s rho = 0.680, p < 0.001). When compared with patients without, those with MOH scored higher on LDQ (13.0 ± 7.6 vs. 3.9 ± 5.1, p < 0.001). By using a receiver operating characteristics curve, the cutoff value of LDQ was determined at 7 (sensitivity = 77.5%, specificity = 77.4%, area under curve = 0.85) for a diagnosis of MOH. An LDQ score of ≥7 was predictive of MOH (odds ratio = 11.80, 95% confidence interval = 7.87–17.67, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the presence of MOH in patients with CM is associated with more severe dependence behaviors. An LDQ score of ≥7 is useful in the detection of MOH in CM patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number472
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • chronic migraine
  • dependence
  • medication-overuse headache
  • questionnaire


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