The median overall survival (OS) of some head and neck malignancies, such as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), with metastatic lesions was only 12 months. Whether aggressive pulmonary metastasectomy (PM) improves survival is controversial. Patients with primary head and neck malignancy undergoing PM were enrolled. Clinical outcomes were compared among different histological types. Whole-exome sequencing was used for matched pulmonary metastatic samples. The genes where genetic variants have been identified were sent for analysis by DAVID, IPA, and STRING. Forty-nine patients with primary head and neck malignancies were enrolled. Two-year postmetastasectomy survival (PMS) rates of adenoid cystic carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and HNSCC were 100%, 88.2%, 71.4%, and 59.2%, respectively (P = 0.024). In HNSCC, the time to distant metastasis was an independent predictive factor of the efficacy of PM. Several pathways, such as branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) consumption, were significantly associated with the progression of HNSCC [P < 0.001, fold enrichment (FE) = 5.45]. Moreover, metabolism-associated signaling pathways also seemed to be involved in cancer metastasis. Histological types and time to distant metastasis were important factors influencing the clinical outcomes of PM. For HNSCC, metabolic-associated signaling pathways were significantly associated with tumor progression and distant metastasis. Future validations are warranted.