Clinical and ultrasonographic features of male breast tumors: A retrospective analysis

Wei Hsin Yuan*, Anna Fen Yau Li, Yi Hong Chou, Hui Chen Hsu, Ying Yuan Chen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Objective The purpose of this study was to determine clinical and ultrasonographic characteristics of male breast tumors. Methods The medical records of male patients with breast lesions were retrieved from an electronic medical record database and a pathology database and retrospectively reviewed. A total of 112 men (125 breast masses) with preoperative breast ultrasonography (US) were included (median age, 59.50 years; age range, 15–96 years). Data extracted included patient age, if the lesions were bilateral, palpable, and tender, and the presence of nipple discharge. Breast lesion features on static US images were reviewed by three experienced radiologists without knowledge of physical examination or pathology results, original breast US image interpretations, or surgical outcomes. The US features were documented according to the BI-RADS (Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System) US lexicons. A forth radiologist compiled the data for analysis. Results Of the 125 breast masses, palpable tender lumps and bilateral synchronous masses were more likely to be benign than malignant (both, 100% vs 0%, P < 0.05). Advanced age and bloody discharge from nipples were common in malignant lesions (P <0.05). A mass eccentric to a nipple, irregular shape, the presence of an echogenic halo, predominantly internal vascularity, and rich color flow signal on color Doppler ultrasound were significantly related to malignancy (all, P < 0.05). An echogenic halo and the presence of rich color flow signal were independent predictors of malignancy. Conclusion Specific clinical and US characteristics of male breast tumors may help guide treatment, and determine if surgery or conservative treatment is preferable.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0194651
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2018


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