Background: Escherichia coli is the leading pathogen responsible for urinary tract infection (UTI) and recurrent UTI (RUTI). Few studies have dealt with the characterization of host and bacteria in RUTI caused by E. coli with genetically identical or different strains. This study aimed to investigate the host and bacterial characteristics of E. coli RUTI based on molecular typing. Results: Patients aged 20 years or above who presented with symptoms of UTI in emergency department or outpatient clinics between August 2009 and December 2010 were enrolled. RUTI was defined as patients had 2 or more infections in 6 months or 3 or more in 12 months during the study period. Host factors (including age, gender, anatomical/functional defect, and immune dysfunction) and bacterial factors (including phylogenicity, virulence genes, and antimicrobial resistance) were included for analysis. There were 41 patients (41%) with 91 episodes of E. coli RUTI with highly related PFGE (HRPFGE) pattern (pattern similarity > 85%) and 58 (59%) patients with 137 episodes of E. coli RUTI with different molecular typing (DMT) pattern, respectively. There was a higher prevalence of phylogenetic group B2 and neuA and usp genes in HRPFGE group if the first episode of RUTI caused by HRPFGE E. coli strains and all episodes of RUTI caused by DMT E. coli strains were included for comparison. The uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains in RUTI were more virulent in female gender, age < 20 years, neither anatomical/ functional defect nor immune dysfunction, and phylogenetic group B2. There were correlations among prior antibiotic therapy within 3 months and subsequent antimicrobial resistance in HRPFGE E. coli RUTI. The use of fluoroquinolones was more likely associated with subsequent antimicrobial resistance in most types of antibiotics. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the uropathogens in RUTI were more virulent in genetically highly-related E. coli strains. Higher bacterial virulence in young age group (< 20 years) and patients with neither anatomical/functional defect nor immune dysfunction suggests that virulent UPEC strains are needed for the development of RUTI in healthy populations. Prior antibiotic therapy, especially the fluoroquinolones, within 3 months could induce subsequent antimicrobial resistance in genetically highly-related E. coli RUTI.
- Antimicrobial resistance
- Escherichia coli
- Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis
- Recurrent urinary tract infection