CCL4 Deletion Accelerates Wound Healing by Improving Endothelial Cell Functions in Diabetes Mellitus

Ting Ting Chang*, Ching Chen, Liang Yu Lin, Jaw Wen Chen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Chronic inflammation in diabetes mellitus (DM) is the leading cause of non-healing wounds. Chemokine CC motif ligand 4 (CCL4) is enhanced in the circulation and in the wounds of DM patients. This study aimed to investigate the effect of endogenous CCL4 inhibition on diabetic wound healing. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) were used. Mice were injected with streptozotocin to generate hyperglycemia. An enhanced CCL4 level as well as decreased tube formation and migration abilities were observed in high-glucose-treated HDMECs and in EPCs from type 2 DM patients. CCL4 inhibition by siRNA restored the damaged cell function by upregulating the Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase/vascular endothelial growth factor/stromal cell-derived factor-1α pathways. Wild-type diabetic mice had delayed wound repair, whereas the CCL4-knockout diabetic mice showed an accelerated rate of wound closure. In a Matrigel plug assay, CCL4-knockout diabetic mice showed higher blood vessel and hemoglobin levels. Higher CD31 and Ki67 expression in the wound area and Matrigel plugs was detected in the CCL4-knockout diabetic mice. CCL4-knockout mice had upregulated angiogenic factors and downregulated inflammatory factors. This study might provide the theoretical basis for CCL4 inhibition as a therapeutic option for clinical diabetic wound treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1963
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2022


  • chemokine CC motif ligand 4
  • diabetes mellitus
  • endothelial progenitor cells
  • human dermal microvascular endothelial cells
  • inflammation
  • wound healing


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