Pulmonary activation-regulated chemokine (PARC) now designated CC-chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) has been shown to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of various tissue injuries and diseases in a proinflammatory or immune suppressive way to limit or support the inflammation or disease. While much is known about the roles of CCL18/PARC in non-neural tissues, its expression in the CNS has remained largely unexplored and controversial. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and double immunohistochemical staining, we analyzed the expression of CCL18/PARC in the human brain with special reference to traumatic brain injuries and tumors. The RT-PCR analysis revealed the expression of CCL18/PARC mRNA both in the traumatic brain and glioma tissues examined. Immunoexpression of CCL18/PARC protein was consistently detected in all cases of traumatic brain injuries examined by immunohistochemical staining. Double immunofluorescence labeling has extended the study that CCL18/PARC positive cells were macrophages/microglia, astrocytes or neurons. The CCL18/PARC expression was localized in macrophage-like cells in two of eight glioblastoma tissues whose cancer cells were CCL18/PARC negative. Unexpectedly, CCL18/PARC mRNA weakly and constitutively expressed by glioblastoma cell line was upregulated after endotoxin stimulation. The present results indicated a significant production of CCL18/PARC in different CNS traumatic and neoplasm tissues by specific cellular elements expressing the chemokine. An anti-inflammatory mechanism jointly exerted by these cells via CCL18/PARC may be involved in the CNS immunity after traumatic injury and tumorigenesis.
|Number of pages||11|
|State||Published - 17 Feb 2010|