In this study, we synthesized new 0.01–2 μm graphene nanosheet/MnO2/WO3 (G/MnO2/WO3) architectures through an electrochemically induced cathodic plasma process in a single batch at a lower temperature (70 °C) and for a shorter time (2 h) than those required for the syntheses of similar structures when using a hydrothermal method. We first obtained 0.01–1 μm leaf-like graphene (G) nanosheets, then 0.1–0.3 μm long and approximately 10 nm diameter petiole-like MnO2 nanowires on the G nanosheets, and finally 0.20–2.0 μm petal-like WO3 on MnO2/G — thereby forming the G/MnO2/WO3 architectures — as evidenced using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. We deciphered the step-wise reaction mechanism behind the formation of the G/MnO2/WO3 architectures during the plasma process. The high surface area of 291 m2 g−1 in the G/MnO2/WO3 architecture was contributed mainly by the G nanosheets, providing a suitable surface area for diffusion of the charge carriers during the charging and discharging process. As a result, an electrode incorporating the G/MnO2/WO3 architectures exhibited an excellent specific capacitance of 620 F g−1 — 45 and 200% higher than those of G/MnO2 (421 F g−1) and G (189 F g−1) electrodes, respectively — at a current density of 0.5 A g−1. Moreover, the G/MnO2/WO3–incorporated electrode exhibited good electrochemical cycling stability, with 90% capacitance retention over 5000 cycles at 1 A g−1. Such new G/MnO2/WO3 heterojunction structures, not only provide high-performance electrode applications, but also suggest a potential approach toward fabricating other heterojunction structures having high surface areas for energy storage applications.
|State||Published - 10 May 2020|
- Cathodic plasma process
- G/MnO/WO architectures
- Sequential syntheses