Caring behavior perceived by nurses, patients and nursing students in Indonesia

Anatun Aupia, Ting Ting Lee*, Chieh Yu Liu, Shu Fang Vivienne Wu, Mary Etta Mills

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Caring as a term in nursing, represents all factors used by nurses to provide health services to patients. The aim of this study was to compare the differences of caring behaviors as perceived by nurses, patients and nursing students and to explore the relationship between sociodemographic variables and the perception of caring. This was a descriptive comparative research study. Data were collected from August to September 2015 in Indonesia by using Caring Behavior Inventory-42 composed of five domains: respect, assurance, connectedness, knowledge and skills, and attentiveness. A total of 158 respondents were sought for three study groups and each group had 53 respondents. Results indicated that nurses, patients and nursing students have the same perception regarding caring behaviors. Patients’ age was positively correlated with respect (r = 0.282, p < 0.05) and connectedness (r = 0.307, p < 0.05) domains. Male students had a higher mean score than female students in assurance (t = 2.230, p < 0.05), knowledge and skills (t = 3.885, p < 0.001), and attentiveness (t = 3.267, p < 0.01), Students with 8-week clinical experiences scored higher in the caring behavior domain of connectedness (t = 3.504, p < 0.05) than students with 4-week experiences. This study can be used as an additional resource to enhance knowledge about caring behavior and for application in the fields of nursing practice and nursing education.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)314-319
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Professional Nursing
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2018


  • Caring
  • Caring behavior
  • Perception of caring behavior


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