Carbonized lysine-nanogels protect against infectious bronchitis virus

Ding Li Chou, Ju Yi Mao, Anisha Anand, Han Jia Lin*, John Han You Lin, Ching Ping Tseng, Chih Ching Huang, Hsian Yu Wang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis of carbonized nanogels (CNGs) from an amino acid (lysine hydrochloride) using a simple pyrolysis method, resulting in effective viral inhibition properties against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The viral inhibition of CNGs was studied using both in vitro (bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV)) and in ovo (IBV) models, which indicated that the CNGs were able to prevent virus attachment on the cell membrane and penetration into the cell. A very low concentration of 30 µg mL−1 was found to be effective (>98% inhibition) in IBV-infected chicken embryos. The hatching rate and pathology of IBV-infected chicken embryos were greatly improved in the presence of CNGs. CNGs with distinctive virus-neutralizing activities show great potential as a virostatic agent to prevent the spread of avian viruses and to alleviate the pathology of infected avian species.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5415
JournalInternational Journal Of Molecular Sciences
Issue number11
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2021


  • Antiviral agents
  • Carbonization
  • Infectious bronchitis virus
  • Lysine
  • Nanogels


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