The mid-wave infrared (MWIR) wavelength range plays a central role in a variety of applications, including optical gas sensing, industrial process control, spectroscopy, and infrared (IR) countermeasures. Among the MWIR light sources, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have the advantages of simple design, room-temperature operation, and low cost. Owing to the low Auger recombination at high carrier densities and direct bandgap of black phosphorus (bP), it can serve as a high quantum efficiency emitting layer in LEDs. In this work, we demonstrate bP-LEDs exhibiting high external quantum efficiencies and wall-plug efficiencies of up to 4.43 and 1.78%, respectively. This is achieved by integrating the device with an Al2O3/Au optical cavity, which enhances the emission efficiency, and a thin transparent conducing oxide [indium tin oxide (ITO)] layer, which reduces the parasitic resistance, both resulting in order of magnitude improvements to performance.
- light extraction efficiency
- parasitic resistance
- two-dimensional (2D) materials