BRATRA: Balanced Routing Algorithm with Transmission Range Adjustment for Energy Efficiency and Utilization Balance in WSNs

Chih Min Yu, Meng Lin Ku, Li Chun Wang, Feng Hua Huang, Wen Kang Jia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs), packets are mainly transmitted in a multi-hop routing manner. The multi-hop transmission, however, leads to a hotspot problem in the sink connectivity area (SCA), and the overall network efficiency is reduced due to the quick battery power exhaustion of nodes in that area. This paper proposes a novel balanced routing algorithm with transmission range adjustment (BRATRA) to address the network efficiency problem, including the energy efficiency and utilization issues. First, a balanced routing strategy is designed to deal with the SCA load imbalance problem. With the shortest balanced path, the amounts of forwarding packets for the nodes in the SCA and all the other intra-layers become more even. From the perspective of power equilibrium in each routing path, each node then determines its accurate transmission radius according to the derived formula and performs power control to realize the even power utilization between inter-layers, thereby prolonging the overall network lifetime. Performance evaluation validates that the proposed BRATRA strategy can achieve efficient power utilization in each intra-layer and double the network lifetime as compared to the Dijkstra routing strategy. Additionally, it yields better power utilization fairness among nodes, and on average only 5% of battery power is unused for all network nodes, resulting in a network lifespan ten times larger than that using a conventional strategy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1
Number of pages1
JournalIEEE Internet of Things Journal
StateAccepted/In press - 2022


  • balanced routing
  • Clustering algorithms
  • Costs
  • Heuristic algorithms
  • network lifecycle
  • Power demand
  • Routing
  • Spread spectrum communication
  • transmission range adjustment
  • Wireless sensor networks
  • Wireless sensor networks


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