A Brain computer interface-based Smart Environmental Control System (BSECS) was proposed in this study. Many environmental control systems have been proposed to improve human life quality recently. However, few researches focused on environment control by using human's physiological state directly. Based on the advantage of our technique on Brain Computer Interface (BCI), we combined BCI technique with Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) home networking for smart house applications. Our BSECS mainly consists of a wireless physiological signal acquisition module, an embedded signal processing module, a Simple Control Protocol (SCP)/ Power Line Communication (PLC) environment controller, and a host system. Here, the physiological signal acquisition module and embedded signal processing module were designed for long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring and real-time cognitive state detection respectively. The advantages of low-power consumption and small volume of the above modules are suitable for smart house applications in daily life. The proposed BSECS has been verified in a practical demo room, and can be simply extended and integrated with the UPnP home networking for other applications.