Inhibition and deletion of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been suggested to ameliorate infarction in experimental ischemic stroke possibly via vasoactive epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. However, it is unknown whether the neuroprotective mechanisms involve alteration of post-ischemic neuronal transmission and neurotrophic signaling. We used a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in adult wild-type mice with the sEH inhibitor 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)dodecanoic acid (AUDA) post-treatment and in sEH knockout (sEH KO) mice. We found that sensorimotor recovery was significantly enhanced after MCAO in both AUDA-treated and sEH KO mice, with decreased sEH activity and brain infarction. Decreased post-ischemic long-term potentiation (iLTP) was observed in an ex vivo hippocampal oxygen-glucose deprivation model. Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) activation, rather than glutamate receptor alteration, was consistently found after the different manipulations. Immunohistochemistry further revealed peri-infarct neuronal TrkB activation and microvasculature augmentation in AUDA-treated and sEH KO mice, suggesting parallel neurovascular enhancement. Mechanistically, pretreatment with a selective TrkB antagonist ANA12 countered the effect of iLTP attenuation induced by sEH deletion ex vivo and abolished the infarct reduction in vivo. Together, the neuroprotective effects of sEH inhibition and gene deletion can both be mediated partially via enhancement of TrkB signaling which attenuated post-ischemic neuroexcitation and neurological deficits.