Biomechanical effect of 3d-printed foot orthoses in patients with knee osteoarthritis

Kuang Wei Lin, Li Wei Chou, Yi Tien Su, Shun Hwa Wei, Chen Shen Chen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Lateral wedges are a common conservative treatment for medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, use of lateral wedges might increase the ankle eversion moment. To minimize the risk of ankle symptoms, lateral wedges with custom arch support are suggested. However, the manufacturing process of a custom foot orthosis (FO) is complicated, labor-intensive, and time-consuming. The technology of 3D printing is an ideal method for mass customization. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop custom FOs using 3D-printing techniques and to evaluate the effects of 3D-printed FOs in patients with knee OA. Fifteen patients with medial knee OA were enrolled into this study. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected during walking by using an optical motion capture system. A paired-sample t-test was conducted to compare biomechanical variables under two conditions: walking in standard shoes (Shoe) and walking in shoes embedded with 3D-printed FOs (Shoe + FO). The results show that the first and second peak knee adduction moments were significantly reduced by 4.08% and 9.09% under the Shoe + FO condition. The FOs alter the biomechanical environment in a way that reduces the variables used to infer abnormal loads at the knee and ankle that could result in painful symptoms.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4200
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 May 2021


  • 3D printing
  • 3D scan
  • Center of pressure
  • Foot orthoses
  • Knee adduction moment


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