Biomechanical Analysis of the FlatFoot with Different 3D-Printed Insoles on the Lower Extremities

Chia Yi Hsu, Chien Shun Wang, Kuang Wei Lin, Mu Jung Chien, Shun Hwa Wei, Chen Sheng Chen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Insoles play an important role in the conservative treatment of functional flat foot. The features of 3D-printed insoles are high customizability, low cost, and rapid prototyping. However, different designed insoles tend to have different effects. The study aimed to use 3D printing technology to fabricate three different kinds of designed insoles in order to compare the biomechanical effects on the lower extremities in flat foot participants. Ten participants with functional flat foot were recruited for this study. Data were recorded via a Vicon motion capture system and force plates during walking under four conditions: without insoles (shoe condition), with auto-scan insoles (scan condition), with total contact insoles (total condition), and with 5-mm wedge added total contact insoles (wedge condition). The navicular height, eversion and dorsiflexion angles of the ankle joint, eversion moment of the ankle joint, and adduction moment of the knee joint were analyzed, and comfort scales were recorded after finishing the analysis. Compared to the shoe condition, all three 3D printed insoles could increase the navicular height and ankle dorsiflexion angle and improve comfort. Among the three insoles, the wedge condition was the most efficient in navicular height support and increasing the ankle dorsiflexion angle.

Original languageEnglish
Article number563
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • 3D printing
  • flat foot
  • insole
  • joint moment
  • range of motion


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