Biofeedback relaxation for pain associated with continuous passive motion in Taiwanese patients after total knee arthroplasty

Tsae Jyy Wang, Ching Fen Chang, Meei Fang Lou, Man Kuan Ao, Chiung Chen Liu*, Shu Yuan Liang, Shu Fang Vivienne Wu, Heng Hsing Tung

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Effective pain management is crucial for patient recovery after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Biofeedback therapy, which encourages relaxation and helps alleviate various conditions associated with stress, may help to decrease postoperative pain in patients undergoing TKA. A quasi- experimental design was used to investigate the efficacy of a biofeedback relaxation intervention in reducing pain associated with postoperative continuous passive motion (CPM) therapy. Sixty-six patients admitted to a general hospital in Taiwan for TKA were recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received biofeedback training twice daily for 5 days, concurrent with CPM therapy, whereas the control group did not receive the biofeedback intervention. Pain was measured using a numeric rating scale before and after each CPM therapy session on postoperative days 1 through 5. The CPM-elicited pain score was calculated by subtracting the pre-CPM pain score from the post-CPM pain score. Results of repeated-measures analysis of variance showed intervention group reported significantly less pain caused by CPM than did the control group (f=29.70, p<0.001). The study results provide preliminary support for biofeedback relaxation, a non-invasive and non-pharmacological intervention, as a complementary treatment option for pain management in this population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)39-50
Number of pages12
JournalResearch in Nursing and Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2015


  • Biofeedback
  • Continuous passive motion
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Postoperative pain
  • Progressive muscle relaxation training
  • Total knee replacement


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