Various optical components employed in biomedical applications have been fabricated using spider silk because of its superior properties, such as elasticity, tensile strength, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. In this study, a highly sensitive fiber optic sugar sensor is fabricated using metal-nanolayer-coated spider silk. The spider silk, which is directly collected from Nephila pilipes, a giant wood spider, is naturally a protein-based biopolymer with great flexibility, low attenuation, and easy functionalization. The surface of the spider silk-based fiber is coated with a metal nano-layer by using the glancing angle deposition technique. This fiber optic sugar sensor is based on the principle of the change in the refractive indices of sugar solutions. The attained experimental results show that the proposed sugar sensor is highly sensitive in the detection of fructose, sucrose, and glucose concentrations. This work may provide a new way to realize precise and sensitive online sugar measurements for point-of-care diagnostics.