Percutaneous pedicle screw instrumentation is the keystone of minimally invasive spine surgery. Percutaneous screw placement demands experience and relies greatly on intra-operative image guidance. This study aims to validate the feasibility and accuracy of augmented-reality (AR)-assisted percutaneous pedicle screw instrumentation. One cadaveric torso was prepared for this study. After a pre-operative computed tomography (CT) scan, the images were transferred to an AR station to generate a 3D hologram. The 3D hologram and navigation images were projected to a pair of goggles with a display screen. With registration, the 3D spine hologram was overlayed onto the cadaver. Bilateral instrumentation from T6 to L5 was performed by two surgeons using AR assistance. A post-operative CT scan was obtained. The Gertzbein–Robbins scale (grade 0–3) was used for accuracy assessment. A total of 24 screws were placed. The overall screw accuracy was 87.5%. There were three major medial breaches that occurred on Rt T6/7/8, which were the most distant screws from the iliac reference. The cause of the three major medial breaches appeared to be related to their distance from the iliac reference. AR-assisted percutaneous pedicle screw instrumentation could improve anatomical visualization, facilitate surgical workflow, and provide an intuitive way of performing surgery.
- 3D hologram
- augmented reality (AR)
- minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS)