Associations between Vitamin D Deficiency and Carbohydrate Intake and Dietary Factors in Taiwanese Pregnant Women

Chao Hsu Lin, Pei Shun Lin, Meei Shyuan Lee, Chien Yu Lin, Yi Hsiang Sung, Sung Tse Li, Shun Long Weng, Shing Jyh Chang, Hung Chang Lee, Yann Jinn Lee, Hung Yang Chang, Chih Sheng Lin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This cross-sectional observation study investigated the vitamin D (VD) status in Taiwanese pregnant women and the effects of VD supplementation and macronutrient intake on serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25[OH]D) level. Data on VD intake, daily sunlight exposure, and carbohydrate intake were obtained from 125 pregnant women at 30–37 weeks’ gestation. Serum 25[OH]D level was measured before delivery in all enrolled women; and the mean 25(OH)D level was 43 nmol/L or 17.2 ng/mL. The 25(OH)D level was significantly correlated with total VD intake of pregnant women (r = 0.239; p = 0.007). The severe VD deficiency group (n = 16; mean of 25(OH)D level = 8.5 ng/mL) had significantly lower total VD intake and supplementation than the groups with VD deficiency (n = 69), insufficiency (n = 32), and sufficiency (n = 8). Those with ≥400 IU/day total VD intake (including VD from food and supplementation) had significantly higher 25(OH)D concentration than those with <400 IU/day total VD intake. Those with 400 IU/day VD supplementation could significantly increase serum 25(OH)D concentrations for pregnant women. Among 85 pregnant women with carbohydrate intake of ≥300 g/day, serum 25(OH)D levels were negatively correlated with carbohydrate intake (p = 0.031). In conclusion, VD deficiency was highly prevalent in Taiwanese pregnant women. VD supplementation was the most effective method for increasing 25(OH)D concentration in pregnant women. Higher carbohydrate intake might reduce 25(OH)D levels.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107
JournalMedicina (Lithuania)
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2023


  • carbohydrate
  • pregnant women
  • vitamin D
  • vitamin D supplementation


Dive into the research topics of 'Associations between Vitamin D Deficiency and Carbohydrate Intake and Dietary Factors in Taiwanese Pregnant Women'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this