Associations between psychiatric disorders and enuresis in taiwanese children: A national population-based study

Hsin Lin Tsai, Jei Wen Chang*, Mu Hong Chen, Mei Jy Jeng, Ling Yu Yang, Keh Gong Wu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Psychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder may negatively impact drug compliance and the prognosis of enuresis. However, existing studies regarding associations between lifetime psychiatric disorders and childhood enuresis are primarily from Western countries, and studies from Taiwan are lacking. Methods: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort analysis using the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2010. A total of 1,146 children with enuresis (ICD-9-CM code: 307.6) and 4,584 randomly selected sex-and age-matched controls were identified between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2011. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the development of psychiatric disorders in the children with enuresis. Results: Enuresis was more common in the younger children, and the rate was significantly higher in boys (58.7%) than in girls (41.3%). A total of 171 patients (14.9%) in the enuresis group had at least one psychiatric diagnosis vs 259 (5.7%) in the control group (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of enuresis increased the odds of developing major depressive/dysthymic disorder (OR=2.841, 95% CI: 1.619, 4.987), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (OR=3.156, 95% CI: 2.446, 4.073), autism spectrum disorder (OR=2.468, 95% CI: 1.264, 4.822), anxiety disorders (OR=3.113, 95% CI: 2.063, 4.699), intelligence disability (OR=3.989, 95% CI: 2.476, 6.426), disruptive behavior disorders (OR=3.749, 95% CI: 1.756, 8.004), and tic disorder (OR=2.660, 95% CI: 1.642, 4.308). Conclusion: Children with enuresis are likely to have psychiatric disorders, and physicians should consider this during their evaluation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)163-171
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Epidemiology
StatePublished - 2020


  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • Children
  • Enuresis
  • Psychiatric disorder


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