In 1996, the National Health Insurance Administration of Taiwan applied a restrictive reimbursement criteria for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) use in patients with chronic kidney disease. The maximal ESAs dosage allowed by insurance is capped at 20,000 U of epoetin per month. Nephrologists avoided the use of high ESA dosages to achieve a hemoglobin level of 10–11 g/dL using iron supplementation. We assessed the association of anemia and iron parameters with mortality among peritoneal dialysis (AIM-PD) patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System. From January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2008, we enrolled 4356 well-nourished PD patients who were older than 20 years and had been receiving PD for more than 12 months. All patients were divided into subgroups according to different hemoglobin, ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) values. Patients were followed until death or December 31, 2008. In a median 2.9-year study period, 694 (15.9%) patients died. By multivariate adjustment, a hemoglobin level lower than 10 g/dL was significantly associated with a higher risk for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths. Moreover, a serum ferritin level higher than 800 ng/mL was associated with a higher risk for all-cause deaths, and a TSAT value between 20 and 50% was associated with the lowest all-cause mortality. In conclusions, we recommend avoiding a low hemoglobin level and a serum ferritin level of more than 800 ng/mL and maintaining a TSAT value between 20 and 50%, as these conditions were associated with lower risks of all-cause mortality in the AIM-PD study.