Association between spirometry pattern, left ventricular diastolic function, and mortality

Wei Ming Huang, Hao Chih Chang, Ching Wei Lee, Chi Jung Huang, Wen Chung Yu, Hao Min Cheng, Chao Yu Guo, Chern En Chiang, Chen Huan Chen, Shih Hsien Sung*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Spirometric abnormalities have been related to incident heart failure in general population, who generally have preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We aimed to investigate the association between spirometric indices, cardiac functions and clinical outcomes. Methods: Subjects presenting with exertional dyspnoea and received spirometry and echocardiography were eligible for this study. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1)/FVC ratio were measured to define the spirometry patterns: normal (FEV1/FVC ≥ 70%, FVC ≥ 80%), obstructive (FEV1/FVC < 70%, FVC ≥ 80%), restrictive pattern (FEV1/FVC ≥ 70%, FVC < 80%) and mixed (FEV1/FVC < 70%, FVC < 80%). The diastolic dysfunction index (DDi) was the counts of the indicators, including septal e′ velocity <7 cm/s, septal E/e′ > 15, pulmonary artery systolic pressure > 35 mmHg and left atrial dimension >40 mm. Results: Among a total of 8669 participants (65.8 ± 16.3 years, 56% men), 3739 (43.1%), 829 (9.6%), 3050 (35.2%) and 1051 (12.1%) had normal, obstructive, restrictive and mixed spirometry pattern, respectively. Subjects with restrictive or mixed spirometry pattern had higher DDi and worse long-term survival than those with obstructive or normal ventilation. FVC but not FEV1/FVC was predictive of 5-year mortality, independent of age, sex, renal function, LVEF, DDi, body mass index, and comorbidities (hazard ratio, 95% confidence intervals:.981,.977–.985). Furthermore, there was an inverse nonlinear relationship between FVC and DDi, suggesting the declined FVC may mediate 43% of the prognostic hazard of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Conclusions: The restrictive spirometry pattern or the declined FVC was associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, which aggravated the long-term mortality in the ambulatory dyspnoeic subjects.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere14043
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Investigation
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2023


  • left ventricular diastolic dysfunction
  • long-term survival
  • pulmonary function test
  • spirometry


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