The optimal conditions for simultaneous determination of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and European Union (EU) priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coffee beans and coffee brews were developed. The QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) technology combined with high performance liquid chromatography - temperature-controlled fluorescence detection and gas chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry were used in the investigation. PAHs could be determined in commercially available green coffee beans (possibly caused by environmental contamination), and their PAHs content increased with the degree of roasting. Coffee beans brewed with the coffee machine released more PAHs into their brews than those brewed with the drip bag. The PAHs consumption risk of the brewed coffee samples was not high due to their low PAH level. Nevertheless, the methods of roasting and brewing and the amount of drinking could still be considered to reduce the intake of PAHs.
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
- Risk assessment