Assessing dietary exposure risk to neonicotinoid residues among preschool children in regions of Taiwan

Min Pei Ling, Huai An Hsiao, Szu Chieh Chen, Wei Yu Chen, Wei Chun Chou, Yi Jun Lin, Shu Han You, Ying Fei Yang, Hsing Chieh Lin, Chi Yun Chen, Tien Hsuan Lu, Chung Min Liao*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Neonicotinoids (NEOs) are a class of pesticides widely used worldwide. This study analyzed post-cooking residues of NEO pesticides and assessed their potential health risks for preschool children (0–6 years old) by conducting a total diet study (TDS). It involved food sampling, preparation, analysis of pesticide residues, estimation of food consumption data, and assessment of food safety risks. Food sampling was conducted between March and June 2015. A total of 128 food samples were obtained from 4 parts of Taiwan. After the food had been prepared, the 128 samples were aggregated into 32 composite food items and the NEO residues analyzed. Acetamiprid had the highest detection rate of the NEO residues (59.4%), and the concentrations ranged from not detected to 80.5 μg/kg. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of NEO residues among preschool children was found to be lower than the adjusted acceptable daily intake (ADI) even for highly exposed groups. The results showed that NEO pesticides were primarily detected in preserved fruits, cherry tomato, rape, bell fruit, and baby bok choy. The main health risk posed by detected NEO residues at high consumption rates for preschool children was attributed to acetamiprid (34.20 %ADI) and imidacloprid (23.69 %ADI), respectively. Therefore, this research implicates that the present level of NEO residues in the diets for preschool children in Taiwan does not exceed 100 %ADI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12112-12121
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number11
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2020


  • Food safety
  • Health risk assessment
  • Neonicotinoid
  • Pesticides
  • Preschool children
  • Total diet study


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