Artificial Intelligence-Enabled Model for Early Detection of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Mortality Prediction in Young to Middle-Aged Adults

Chih Min Liu, Ming En Hsieh, 胡瑜峰*, Tzu Yin Wei, I. Chien Wu, Pei Fen Chen, Yenn-Jiang Lin, Satoshi Higa, Nobumori Yagi, Shih Ann Chen, Vincent S. Tseng

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: Concealed left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a prevalent condition that is correlated with a substantial risk of cardiovascular events and mortality, especially in young to middle-aged adults. Early identification of LVH is warranted. In this work, we aimed to develop an artificial intelligence (AI)-enabled model for early detection and risk stratification of LVH using 12-lead ECGs. Methods: By deep learning techniques on the ECG recordings from 28 745 patients (20-60 years old), the AI model was developed to detect verified LVH from transthoracic echocardiography and evaluated on an independent cohort. Two hundred twenty-five patients from Japan were externally validated. Cardiologists' diagnosis of LVH was based on conventional ECG criteria. The area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity were applied to evaluate the model performance. A Cox regression model estimated the independent effects of AI-predicted LVH on cardiovascular or all-cause death. Results: The AUC of the AI model in diagnosing LVH was 0.89 (sensitivity: 90.3%, specificity: 69.3%), which was significantly better than that of the cardiologists' diagnosis (AUC, 0.64). In the second independent cohort, the diagnostic performance of the AI model was consistent (AUC, 0.86; sensitivity: 85.4%, specificity: 67.0%). After a follow-up of 6 years, AI-predicted LVH was independently associated with higher cardiovascular or all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.91 [1.04-3.49] and 1.54 [1.20-1.97], respectively). The predictive power of the AI model for mortality was consistently valid among patients of different ages, sexes, and comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes, stroke, heart failure, and myocardial infarction. Last, we also validated the model in the international independent cohort from Japan (AUC, 0.83). Conclusions: The AI model improved the detection of LVH and mortality prediction in the young to middle-aged population and represented an attractive tool for risk stratification. Early identification by the AI model gives every chance for timely treatment to reverse adverse outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)658-668
Number of pages11
JournalCirculation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2022


  • adults
  • artificial intelligence
  • deep learning
  • electrocardiography
  • hypertrophy
  • mortality


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