Artificial Intelligence-Enabled Electrocardiogram Improves the Diagnosis and Prediction of Mortality in Patients With Pulmonary Hypertension

Chih Min Liu, Edward S.C. Shih, Jhih Yu Chen, Chih Han Huang, I. Chien Wu, Pei Fen Chen, Satoshi Higa, Nobumori Yagi, Yu Feng Hu*, Ming Jing Hwang, Shih Ann Chen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Background: Pulmonary hypertension is a disabling and life-threatening cardiovascular disease. Early detection of elevated pulmonary artery pressure (ePAP) is needed for prompt diagnosis and treatment to avoid detrimental consequences of pulmonary hypertension. Objectives: This study sought to develop an artificial intelligence (AI)-enabled electrocardiogram (ECG) model to identify patients with ePAP and related prognostic implications. Methods: From a hospital-based ECG database, the authors extracted the first pairs of ECG and transthoracic echocardiography taken within 2 weeks of each other from 41,097 patients to develop an AI model for detecting ePAP (PAP > 50 mm Hg by transthoracic echocardiography). The model was evaluated on independent data sets, including an external cohort of patients from Japan. Results: Tests of 10-fold cross-validation neural-network deep learning showed that the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of the AI model was 0.88 (sensitivity 81.0%; specificity 79.6%) for detecting ePAP. The diagnostic performance was consistent across age, sex, and various comorbidities (diagnostic odds ratio >8 for most factors examined). At 6-year follow-up, the patients predicted by the AI model to have ePAP were independently associated with higher cardiovascular mortality (HR: 3.69). Similar diagnostic performance and prediction for cardiovascular mortality could be replicated in the external cohort. Conclusions: The ECG-based AI model identified patients with ePAP and predicted their future risk for cardiovascular mortality. This model could serve as a useful clinical test to identify patients with pulmonary hypertension so that treatment can be initiated early to improve their survival prognosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)258-270
Number of pages13
JournalJACC: Asia
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2022


  • all-cause mortality
  • artificial intelligence
  • cardiovascular mortality
  • deep learning
  • electrocardiogram
  • pulmonary hypertension


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