Application of machine learning for mortality prediction in patients with candidemia: Feasibility verification and comparison with clinical severity scores

Wei Huan Hu, Shang Yi Lin, Yuh Jyh Hu, Ho Yin Huang, Po Liang Lu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Clinical severity scores, such as acute physiology, age, chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II), sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA), Pitt Bacteremia Score (PBS), and European Confederation of Medical Mycology Quality (EQUAL) score, may not reliably predict candidemia prognosis owing to their prespecified scorings that can limit their adaptability and applicability. Objectives: Unlike those fixed and prespecified scorings, we aim to develop and validate a machine learning (ML) approach that is able to learn predictive models adaptively from available patient data to increase adaptability and applicability. Methods: Different ML algorithms follow different design philosophies and consequently, they carry different learning biases. We have designed an ensemble meta-learner based on stacked generalisation to integrate multiple learners as a team to work at its best in a synergy to improve predictive performances. Results: In the multicenter retrospective study, we analysed 512 patients with candidemia from January 2014 to July 2019 and compared a stacked generalisation model (SGM) with APACHE II, SOFA, PBS and EQUAL score to predict the 14-day mortality. The cross-validation results showed that the SGM significantly outperformed APACHE II, SOFA, PBS, and EQUAL score across several metrics, including F1-score (0.68, p <.005), Matthews correlation coefficient (0.54, p <.05 vs. SOFA, p <.005 vs. the others) and the area under the curve (AUC; 0.87, p <.005). In addition, in an independent external test, the model effectively predicted patients' mortality in the external validation cohort, with an AUC of 0.77. Conclusions: ML models show potential for improving mortality prediction amongst patients with candidemia compared to clinical severity scores.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere13667
JournalMycoses
Volume67
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2024

Keywords

  • APACHE II
  • Candidemia
  • EQUAL
  • PBS
  • SOFA
  • machine learning

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