This study aimed to explore the mechanisms by which andrographolide protects against hypoxia-induced oxidative/nitrosative brain injury provoked by cerebral ischemic/reperfusion (CI/R) injury in mice. Hypoxia in vitro was modeled using oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by reoxygenation of BV-2 microglial cells. Our results showed that treatment of mice that have undergone CI/R injury with andrographolide (10100μg/kg, i.v.) at 1h after hypoxia ameliorated CI/R-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress, brain infarction, and neurological deficits in the mice, and enhanced their survival rate. CI/R induced a remarkable production in the mouse brains of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a significant increase in protein nitrosylation; this primarily resulted from enhanced expression of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the infiltration of CD11b cells due to activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-B) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1). All these changes were significantly diminished by andrographolide. In BV-2 cells, OGD induced ROS and nitric oxide production by upregulating NOX2 and iNOS via the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT-dependent NF-B and HIF-1 pathways, and these changes were suppressed by andrographolide and LY294002. Our results indicate that andrographolide reduces NOX2 and iNOS expression possibly by impairing PI3K/AKT-dependent NF-B and HIF-1α activation. This compromises microglial activation, which then, in turn, mediates andrographolide's protective effect in the CI/R mice.
- gp91NADPH oxidase (NOX2)
- phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT