Anammox Processes

M. Kumar, A. Daverey, J. D. Gu, Jih-Gaw Lin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Biological nitrogen removal by the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process is becoming increasingly recognized for applications in wastewater treatment plants (WTPs). This group of microorganisms has been widely found in a range of natural ecosystems and human-made systems with niche specificity. The metabolic reactions catalyzed by anammox bacteria based on stoichiometry and the PCR-based molecular tools used for identification/quantification are described in this chapter. Physical and chemical characteristics of conventional WTPs and the occurrence of anammox are analyzed and discussed. The advantages and limitations of the anammox system compared with conventional nitrogen removal processes are also addressed in detail. Finally, the current developments in anammox systems in various reactor systems, anammox coupling with other processes, and successful cases of anammox occurring in conventional WTPs in Taiwan are discussed. Future perspectives in applications of anammox for sustainable nitrogen removal and energy minimization are outlined.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCurrent Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Subtitle of host publicationBiological Treatment of Industrial Effluents
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages21
ISBN (Electronic)9780444636768
ISBN (Print)9780444636652
StatePublished - 16 Sep 2016


  • Anammox
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization
  • Nitrogen removal
  • Polymerase Chain reaction
  • Wastewater Treatment


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