An innovative nanoformulation utilizing tumor microenvironment-responsive PEG-polyglutamic coating and dynamic charge adjustment for specific targeting of ER stress inducer, microRNA, and immunoadjuvant in pancreatic cancer: In vitro investigations

Ching Yao Li, Tsui Fen Chou, Yu Li Lo*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a significant obstacle to lowering global cancer deaths. CB-5083, a novel valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97 inhibitor that disrupts proteasomal degradation and induces endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) accumulation, was evaluated as an inducer of immunogenic cell death (ICD) in PDAC treatment. Furthermore, miR-142 enhances checkpoint blockade and promotes M1 repolarization, while Toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist resiquimod (R) acts as an immunoadjuvant to amplify the immune response to miR-142. This research signifies the first integration of CB, miR-142, and R in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) modified with peptides targeting PD-L1, EGFR, and ER, which were shelled by the PEG-polyglutamic (PGA) coating that detaches in response to the acidic pH values in the tumor microenvironment (TME). The modified SLNs exhibited pH-sensitive cytotoxicity against Panc-02 cells, preserving normal cells and preventing hemolysis. The innovative approach simultaneously modulated pathways, including VCP/Bip/K48-Ub/ATF6, IRE1α/XBPs/LC3II, PD-L1/TGF-β/IL-10/CD206/MSR1/Arg1, and TNF-α/IFN-γ/IL-6/iNOS/COX-2. Combined treatment blocked VCP, arrested the cell cycle, inhibited EMT, triggered ERS-mediated autophagy/apoptosis, and stimulated robust ICD via the release of damage-associated molecular patterns. This adaptable nanoformulation, displaying pH-sensitive PEG-PGA de-coating and precisely targeting EGFR, PD-L1, and ER, serves to hinder EMT and immune evasion, subsequently amplifying ICD in PDAC cells and the TME.

Original languageEnglish
Article number127905
JournalInternational Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Volume254
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2024

Keywords

  • Endoplasmic reticulum stress
  • Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-polyglutamic acid (PGA)
  • microRNA

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