Conventional PD-L1 immunohistochemical tissue biopsies only predict 20%–40% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients that will respond positively to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy. Herein, we present an immunogold biochip to quantify single extracellular vesicular RNA and protein (AuSERP) as a non-invasive alternative. With only 20 μl of purified serum, PD-1/PD-L1 proteins on the surface of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and EV PD-1/PD-L1 messenger RNA (mRNA) cargo were detected at a single-vesicle resolution and exceeded the sensitivities of their bulk-analysis conventional counterparts, ELISA and qRT-PCR, by 1000 times. By testing a cohort of 27 non-responding and 27 responding NSCLC patients, AuSERP indicated that the single-EV mRNA biomarkers surpass the single-EV protein biomarkers in predicting patient responses to immunotherapy. Dual single-EV PD-1/PD-L1 mRNA detection differentiated responders from non-responders with an accuracy of 72.2% and achieved an NSCLC diagnosis accuracy of 93.2%, suggesting the potential for AuSERP to provide enhanced immunotherapy predictions and cancer diagnoses within the clinical setting.
|Journal||Journal of Extracellular Vesicles|
|State||Published - Sep 2022|