An alternative composite electrode for efficient organic light-emitting diodes

Dian Luo, Tsung Che Chiang, Chi Hao Chan, Po Chen Chiu, Hao Hsuan Chiu, Chia Hao Ku, Chih Hao Chang*, Jhih Yan Guo, Shun Wei Liu, Hai Ching Su

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Considering a device structure consisting of multi-stacked layers with different refractive indices, we proposed a composite electrode to diminish total internal reflection, thereby improving the out-coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The selected transparent conducting oxide materials for the composite electrode were composed of the same main material, gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO), to avoid lattice mismatch and reduce interfacial strain. Herein, silicon-doped GZO (SGZO) with a relatively low refractive index was used in combination with molybdenum-doped GZO (MGZO) with a high work function to form a multifunctional transparent composite electrode. High transmittance of 94.5% and adequate sheet resistance of 52.3 Ohm/sq were realized through the design of SGZO/MGZO films on a glass substrate. The tested blue phosphorescent OLEDs with SGZO/MGZO composite anode outperformed devices with other selected single-layer electrodes, achieving a high peak efficiency of 29.0% (57.6 cd/A and 47.6 lm/W). These results demonstrate clear advantages of using this composite-electrode concept for realizing high efficiency OLEDs or other flexible optoelectronics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105844
JournalOrganic Electronics
StatePublished - Oct 2020


  • Composite electrode
  • Gallium-doped zinc oxide
  • Molybdenum-doped GZO (MGZO)
  • Organic light-emitting diode (OLED)
  • Silicon-doped GZO (SGZO)


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