Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the association between anxiety disorders and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: This is a population-based, retrospective case-control study using Taiwan's nationwide database. We included patients with OSA aged ≥12 years, diagnosed according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes: 327 and 780. Each enrolled patient with OSA needed to undergo a polysomnography examination within 1 year pre- or post-OSA occurrence. Patients with OSA and controls were selected in a 1:4 ratio. Patients with anxiety disorders (ICD-9-CM code 300) were diagnosed by board-certified psychiatrists and required to visit the outpatient clinic at least three times per year. Multivariate logistic regression and interaction analyses were used to evaluate the objective association. Results: This study enrolled 7987 and 31 948 participants with and without OSA, respectively. A significant difference in anxiety exposure was observed only pre-OSA diagnosis but not post-OSA diagnosis. Compared with patients without anxiety disorders: (i) those with anxiety disorders had an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of ≈1.864 in OSA comorbidity (aOR = 1.864; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.337–2.405); and (ii) subgroup analysis showed a significant interaction that anxiety patients of male sex, aged 18 to 44 years, aged 45 to 64 years, and hypertension had a higher aOR in OSA comorbidity (aOR = 2.104 [95% CI = 1.436–2.589], aOR = 1.942 [95% CI = 1.390–2.503], aOR = 2.179 [95% CI = 1.564–2.811], and aOR = 2.092 [95% CI = 1.497–2.706], respectively). Conclusion: The study revealed a higher ratio of previous anxiety exposure in patients with OSA. Compared with those without anxiety, anxiety patients of male sex, aged 18 to 64 years, and with hypertension had a higher risk of OSA comorbidity.
- National Health Insurance Research database
- obstructive sleep apnea