Purpose of reviewPercutaneous catheter ablation is an effective treatment for atrial fibrillation. However, catheter ablation for the treatment of persistent atrial fibrillation or long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation is associated with unsatisfying success rates. This review aims to summarize the recent literature on the progress of catheter ablation among patients with persistent atrial fibrillationRecent findingsIn this review, we outline the potential future therapeutic techniques of catheter ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation. We highlight the innovative techniques (rotor mapping, substrate mapping, delayed enhancement MRI, and high-resolution mapping catheter) of current approaches and optimal procedural endpoint for persistent atrial fibrillation.SummaryIn summary, the optimal catheter ablation strategy for persistent atrial fibrillation remains unknown. Current data highlight the need for a better understanding of the substrate and mechanisms of arrhythmia maintenance in this population. Current mapping technologies offer additional tools (improved automatic algorithm for annotation, multiple electrode mapping, high-resolution mapping, and application of different processing techniques) for identifying the putative mechanism underlying atrial fibrillation. Further prospective studies are needed for the optimal procedural endpoint and the recent innovative techniques and their clinical benefits in ablation strategies.
- atrial fibrillation
- pulmonary vein isolation