A survey of fragile watermarking-based image authentication techniques

Xiao Long Liu, Chia Chen Lin*, Chin Chen Chang, Shyan-Ming Yuan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Image authentication is a technique aimed at protecting digital image authenticity and integrity when it is illegally modified. In this review paper, a literature survey of the emerging techniques for fragile watermarking-based image authentication is presented. To present a detailed description of existing fragile watermarking-based image authentication schemes, several of the existing representative schemes are classified into three main types in the paper, namely, spatial domain, frequency domain, and compression domain. Each main type is divided into two subtypes, which depend on each existing scheme having either recoverable or unrecoverable features. A characteristic analysis for all introduced schemes and comparisons of them in terms of localization, reconstruction capacities and other criteria are also offered. Finally, the potential issues of fragile watermarking-based image authentication are pointed out in the conclusion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1282-1292
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2016


  • Fragile watermarking
  • Image authentication
  • Localization capability
  • Reconstruction capability
  • Reversibility
  • Tamper detection


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