Objectives: RISK21 matrix is a straightforward, efficient, transparent, and visual approach for health risk assessment. The purpose of this study was to adopt RISK21 approach combining traditional risk assessment method to assess the potential health risks of DDT (dichlorodiphe nyltrichloroethane) when flower tea is drunk or when petals are directly consumed by various age groups. Methods: Based on the principles of risk assessment, we integrated age-specific total daily intakes of DDT with non-carcinogenic toxicity data to assess the level of health concern regarding liver lesion and developmental toxicity by RISK21 matrix. We also applied the carcinogenic toxicity data to quantify the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for liver tumor. Results: RISK21 matrix for all age groups showed that DDT in flower tea drinks posed a low health concerns of liver lesion and developmental toxicity. However, there were very significant health concerns when the DDT exposure through a direct intake of petals. The ILCRs of DDT ranged 1.14×10-19 - 3.40×10-12 and 2.12×10-10 - 3.29×10-3 for drinking flower tea and directly consuming petals, respectively, indicating a high potential risk of liver tumor from consuming petals. Conclusions: Although drinking DDT-contaminated flower tea is unlikely to be a significant safety concern, the human health risks related to DDT exposure are alarming from a conservative point of view when there is direct intake of flower tea petals. RISK21 matrix is an easy-to-use tool that not only promotes an understanding of risk assessment but also helps the risk communication among scientists, industries, governments, and the public.
- Flower tea
- Health risk assessment