A Fully Integrated and Self-Powered Smartwatch for Continuous Sweat Glucose Monitoring

Jiangqi Zhao, Yuanjing Lin, Jingbo Wu, Hnin Yin Yin Nyein, Mallika Bariya, Li Chia Tai, Minghan Chao, Wenbo Ji, George Zhang, Zhiyong Fan, Ali Javey*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

150 Scopus citations


Wearable devices for health monitoring and fitness management have foreseen a rapidly expanding market, especially those for noninvasive and continuous measurements with real-time display that provide practical convenience and eliminated safety/infection risks. Herein, a self-powered and fully integrated smartwatch that consists of flexible photovoltaic cells and rechargeable batteries in the forms of a "watch strap", electrochemical glucose sensors, customized circuits, and display units integrated into a "dial" platform is successfully fabricated for real-time and continuous monitoring of sweat glucose levels. The functionality of the smartwatch, including sweat glucose sensing, signal processing, and display, can be supported with the harvested/converted solar energy without external charging devices. The Zn-MnO2 batteries serve as intermediate energy storage units and the utilization of aqueous electrolytes eliminated safety concerns for batteries, which is critical for wearable devices. Such a wearable system in a smartwatch fashion realizes integration of energy modules with self-powered capability, electrochemical sensors for noninvasive glucose monitoring, and in situ and real-time signal processing/display in a single platform for the first time. The as-fabricated fully integrated and self-powered smartwatch also provides a promising protocol for statistical study and clinical investigation to reveal correlations between sweat compositions and human body dynamics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1925-1933
Number of pages9
JournalACS Sensors
Issue number7
StatePublished - 26 Jul 2019


  • flexible biosensors
  • healthcare and fitness management
  • noninvasive glucose monitoring
  • self-powered system
  • wearable electronics


Dive into the research topics of 'A Fully Integrated and Self-Powered Smartwatch for Continuous Sweat Glucose Monitoring'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this