Background: The applicability and therapeutic efficacy of specific personalized immunotherapy for cancer patients is limited by the genetic diversity of the host or the tumor. Side-effects such as immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) derived from the administration of immunotherapy have also been observed. Therefore, regulatory immunotherapy is required for cancer patients and should be developed. Methods: The cationic lipo-PEG-PEI complex (LPPC) can stably and irreplaceably adsorb various proteins on its surface without covalent linkage, and the bound proteins maintain their original functions. In this study, LPPC was developed as an immunoregulatory platform for personalized immunotherapy for tumors to address the barriers related to the heterogenetic characteristics of MHC molecules or tumor associated antigens (TAAs) in the patient population. Here, the immune-suppressive and highly metastatic melanoma, B16F10 cells were used to examine the effects of this platform. Adsorption of anti-CD3 antibodies, HLA-A2/peptide, or dendritic cells’ membrane proteins (MP) could flexibly provide pan-T-cell responses, specific Th1 responses, or specific Th1 and Th2 responses, depending on the host needs. Furthermore, with regulatory antibodies, the immuno-LPPC complex properly mediated immune responses by adsorbing positive or negative antibodies, such as anti-CD28 or anti-CTLA4 antibodies. Results: The results clearly showed that treatment with LPPC/MP/CD28 complexes activated specific Th1 and Th2 responses, including cytokine release, CTL and prevented T-cell apoptosis. Moreover, LPPC/MP/CD28 complexes could eliminate metastatic B16F10 melanoma cells in the lung more efficiently than LPPC/MP. Interestingly, the melanoma resistance of mice treated with LPPC/MP/CD28 complexes would be reversed to susceptible after administration with LPPC/MP/CTLA4 complexes. NGS data revealed that LPPC/MP/CD28 complexes could enhance the gene expression of cytokine and chemokine pathways to strengthen immune activation than LPPC/MP, and that LPPC/MP/CTLA4 could abolish the LPPC/MP complex-mediated gene expression back to un-treatment. Conclusions: Overall, we proved a convenient and flexible immunotherapy platform for developing personalized cancer therapy. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
|Journal||Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research|
|State||Published - Dec 2023|
- Costimulatory molecules
- personalized cancer therapy
- Tumor heterogenicity