38-GHz Phased Array Transmitter and Receiver Based on Scalable Phased Array Modules with Endfire Antenna Arrays for 5G MMW Data Links

Chun Nien Chen, Yi Hsien Lin, Li Cheng Hung, Tzu Chien Tang, Wei Pang Chao, Cheng Yu Chen, Po Hsiang Chuang, Guan Yu Lin, Wei Jun Liao, Yu Hsiang Nien, Wei Cheng Huang, Tai Yu Kuo, Kun You Lin, Tian Wei Huang, Yi Cheng Lin, Hsin Chia Lu, Tsung Heng Tsai, Huei Wang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations


This article presents the 38-GHz phased array 32-element Tx and 16-element Rx with 2-GHz IF and 5-GHz LO for fifth-generation (5G) millimeter-wave (MMW) communications. The Tx and Rx beamformers and upconverters/downconverters are fabricated in 65-nm CMOS. The PAs and LNAs near antenna ends are fabricated in 0.15- μ \text{m} GaAs pHEMT. The eight-element Tx and four-element Rx phased array printed circuit board (PCB) modules integrated with multiple integrated circuits (ICs) and endfire antennas are implemented as unit cells. Four pieces of Tx modules are vertically stacked to construct an 8× {4} brick array (planar array), while four Rx modules are to construct a 4× {4} array. According to 38-GHz over-the-air (OTA) measurements, the 32-element Tx shows 47.5-dBm equivalent isotropic radiated power (EIRP) at OP {1 - dB} with -35.2-dB image rejection ratio (IMRR) and -37.4-dB × 8 LORR. The 16-element Rx at 38 GHz shows -4-dBm OP {1 - dB} with -28-dB IMRR and -36.6-dB LORR. The Tx and Rx support the beam scanning around ±60° azimuth and ±30° elevation planes. The Tx-to-Rx wireless data link demonstrates 64 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)/400 M-BR, 256 QAM/200 M-BR, and 512 QAM/100 M-BR in 20 m. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first 5G 37-/39-GHz phased array Tx/Rx using the scalable brick array configuration and demonstrating competitive performances compared with previous works.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9257595
Pages (from-to)980-999
Number of pages20
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2021


  • 0.15-μm GaAs pHEMT
  • 65-nm CMOS
  • Baud rate (BR)
  • Equivalent isotropic radiated power (EIRP)
  • error vector magnitude (EVM)
  • fifth-generation millimeter-wave (5G MMW)
  • image rejection ratio (IMRR)
  • integrated circuits (ICs)
  • LO - rejection ratio (LORR)
  • over-the-air (OTA)
  • phased array
  • printed circuit board (PCB)
  • quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)
  • receiver (Rx)
  • transceiver (TRx)
  • transmitter (Tx)


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