2024 Recommendations for Validation of Noninvasive Arterial Pulse Wave Velocity Measurement Devices

Bart Spronck*, Dimitrios Terentes-Printzios, Alberto P. Avolio, Pierre Boutouyrie, Andrea Guala, Ana Jerončić, Stéphane Laurent, Eduardo C.D. Barbosa, Johannes Baulmann, Chen Huan Chen, Julio A. Chirinos, Stella S. Daskalopoulou, Alun D. Hughes, Azra Mahmud, Christopher C. Mayer, Jeong Bae Park, Gary L. Pierce, Aletta E. Schutte, Elaine M. Urbina, Ian B. WilkinsonPatrick Segers, James E. Sharman, Isabella Tan, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Thomas Weber, Elisabetta Bianchini, Rosa Maria Bruno

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness, as measured by arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV), is an established biomarker for cardiovascular risk and target-organ damage in individuals with hypertension. With the emergence of new devices for assessing PWV, it has become evident that some of these devices yield results that display significant discrepancies compared with previous devices. This discrepancy underscores the importance of comprehensive validation procedures and the need for international recommendations. METHODS: A stepwise approach utilizing the modified Delphi technique, with the involvement of key scientific societies dedicated to arterial stiffness research worldwide, was adopted to formulate, through a multidisciplinary vision, a shared approach to the validation of noninvasive arterial PWV measurement devices. RESULTS: A set of recommendations has been developed, which aim to provide guidance to clinicians, researchers, and device manufacturers regarding the validation of new PWV measurement devices. The intention behind these recommendations is to ensure that the validation process can be conducted in a rigorous and consistent manner and to promote standardization and harmonization among PWV devices, thereby facilitating their widespread adoption in clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: It is hoped that these recommendations will encourage both users and developers of PWV measurement devices to critically evaluate and validate their technologies, ultimately leading to improved consistency and comparability of results. This, in turn, will enhance the clinical utility of PWV as a valuable tool for assessing arterial stiffness and informing cardiovascular risk stratification and management in individuals with hypertension.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)183-192
Number of pages10
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2024


  • aorta
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • guideline
  • methods
  • pulse wave analysis
  • vascular stiffness


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